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UN:稀有金屬少回收 20到30年內將耗盡
發佈日期 :2010-07-09

聯合國委員會13日指出,科技產品中使用的許多特殊金屬回收率偏低,往往不到1%,可能再過2030年就會耗盡。


聯合國環境計畫(U.N. Environmental Program)公布這項數字,同時開始發表一連串針對各項金屬的報告,旨在鼓勵回收更多現有金屬儲量,取代對新開採礦物的依賴。


環境計畫設立的國際永續資源管理小組(International Panel for Sustainable Resource)成員葛雷德(Thomas Graedel)在記者會上舉銦為例,這種金屬應用在液晶顯示玻璃、半導體、太陽能電池及其他產品。銦的需求量今年是1200噸,預計2020年成長到2600噸。


葛雷德引述晶片廠商英特爾集團(Intel Corp.)的資料,該公司製造的電腦零件從1980年代的11種增加到現在約60種,顯示如果無法取得較新的稀有金屬,電腦性能可能很難維持目前水準。



他指出,回收率極低的原因之一,在於每項產品使用的金屬量很少,回收不符合經濟效益。不過他表示,改良設計可讓金屬更易回收。





日期:99 6 15


出處:http://news.msn.com.tw/news1704851.aspx




U.N. panel sees future shortage of specialty metals



       UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - Recycling rates for many specialty metals used in high-tech production are so low often less than 1 percent that may drain out in two to three decades, a U.N.-appointed panel said on Thursday.


  The figure was disclosed as the U.N. Environmental Program (UNEP) began issuing a series of reports on metals, designed to encourage more recycling of existing metal stocks rather than depending on fresh mining for ores.


  Thomas Graedel, a member of the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management set up by UNEP, said that without increasing the specialty metals recycling by the electronics industry would strain their availability.


  At a U.N. news conference, he cited the case of indium, used in liquid crystal display glass, semiconductors, photovoltaic cells and other products. Demand for the metal is set to grow from 1,200 tons this year to 2,600 tons in 2020.


  "Currently we think that recycling rates for indium are below one percent. We think that's the case for almost all of the specialty metals," said Graedel, a professor of industrial ecology at Yale University.


  He said that while he was not predicting the materials would run out altogether, "we thought there is a reasonable prospect that over the next two or three decades some materials may be in short enough supply so that they will become essentially unavailable as routine materials for industry.


  Prices for such metals could turn rise, changing the way they were typically used, said Graedel in releasing preliminary findings of a report the panel plans to publish in full in October.


  Other metals whose recycling rates the panel said needed to be improved included neodymium, used in wind turbine magnets, and gallium, used for light emitting diodes in indicator lamps and lighting.


  RECOVERY UNECONOMIC


  Graedel cited information from microchip maker Intel Corp. That the number of elements it used for computers rose from 11 in the 1980s to around 60 now, indicating that it would be hard to maintain current levels of computer manufacture if newer specialty metals became unavailable.


  He explained that one reason for the poor recycling rates was the very small quantities of the metals used in each device, making recovery uneconomic. But better design could make the metals easier to recycle, he said.


  In a separate report, the U.N. panel detailed what it said was a substantial shift in metals stocks from underground ores to existing products. "These 'mines above ground' have growing potential for future metals supply," it said.


  Above-ground copper amounts to about 50 kg (112 pounds) for every person on earth, compared with more than 2 tons of iron, the panel said. The recycling rate for steel is about 75 percentage but for copper between 25 and 50 percent, it found.




Date: Jun 15, 2010


The resource from: http://news.msn.com.tw/news1704851.aspx



 


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